Drupal 8 and Configuration Synchronization

Developing any kind of enterprise site typically involves multiple environments, for example Development, Staging, and Production. A very common scenario developers run into is that a site is developed locally (on the developer’s own machine) and then the code changes get pushed to a repository (version control using Git, Subversion, Mercurial, etc). But what about database changes? Those aren’t code … but they can be.